Artists' biographies

Eduard Adam

Born: 1847
Died: 1929

French marine painter from Le Havre.

Prof. Ottomar Anton

Born: 15th December 1895 in Hamburg
Died: 1976

The Painter and graphic artits worked in Hamburg, Cologne and Cairo. He went on several journeys. Anton designed a large number of lithographic ship portraits for all famous shipping companies in northern Germany. Furthermore he worked for the company "4711 - Kölnisch Wasser", whose today still used emblem he designed. His large complete works are mainly in private ownership and in public collections today.

Werner Anton

Born: 5th July 1902 in Hamburg
Died: 1976

Brother of Prof. Ottomar Anton. The successful Painter and graphic artits also worked as an art consultant in different industrial companies. The outcome of this were several orders from state, senate and politics, as e.g. the portrait of the former director of the Museum for the History of Hamburg, Prof. Hävernick in 1961 or works for the shipyard Blohm & Voss. His wall paintings of different shipping companies are also worth mentioning. From 1929 to 1974 he was present at numerous international exhibitions.

Carl Ludwig Bille

Born: 20th February 1815 in Copenhagen
Died: 14th November 1898 in Copenhagen

He was one of the most important Danish marine painters. His works mainly consisted of (partially romantic) ship, sea, harbour and beach paintings. He was a seaman for a long time and started to work as an autodidactic painter in 1850. Thus his paintings are characterised by a great amount of know-how in the portrayed details.

From 1855 he was the apprentice of the marine painter Carl Dahl for one year. In 1868 he got a scholarship for the academy of arts in Copenhagen.

Paintings of Carl Bille were shown at numerous exhibitions: several times at the Royal Danish academy of arts at Charlottenburg caste between 1854 and 1891; 1882, 1884, 1890 at the "Bremen Kunsthalle". Today his paintings are in museums and privately held in and out of Denmark.

Carl Bille is the father of the marine painter Vilhelm Bille andere the grandfather of painter Willy Bille.

This text is based on the German article Carl Bille from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia. It is available under the terms of the
Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported license. A list of the authors is available at Wikipedia.

Adolf Bock

Born: 5th August 1890 in Berlin
Died: 13th January 1968 in Helsingborg / Sweden

Like other well-known german marine painters (e.g. Hans Bohrdt, Willy Stöwer or Robert Schmidt-Hamburg), Adolf Bock was an autodidact.

His grandfather was a landscape painter, his father was a farmer and a hobby painter. Supported by his father he created drawings at an early age already. He quickly discontinued three painting apprenticeships. In 1910 he joined the kaiserliche Marine (Imperial German Navy) for four years. In 1912 he accompanied Kaiser Wilhelm II. as a sailor on a journey to the Mediterranean sea and was discovered and supported by him.

He lived and painted in Germany, Finland and Sweden. In 1919 he moved to Finland to be able to better study and paint the windjammers still prevalent there. Between both world wars he often also worked for shipping companies, publishers and journals. Overall he worked 17 years as a painter, illustrator and writer for the Danish-Swedish weekly journal "Familie Journal", he even went on a world trip for them.

On 30th January 1944 he was awarded the title of professor by Adolf Hitler, the only appointment at all during the Second world War. Furthermore he was mentioned by name and complimented in Hitler's table talks.

On 30th January 1945 he survived the sinking of the passenger steamer Wilhelm Gustloff as a passenger. The book "Die Versenkung der Wilhelm Gustloff" reports on his rescue in detail. In 1950 Adolf Bock created three pen drawings about the disaster but did not deal with the topic again lateron.

This text is based on the German article Adolf Bock from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia. It is available under the terms of the
Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported license. A list of the authors is available at Wikipedia.

Heinke Böhnert

Born: 1961 in Hamburg

Wind, water, waves, sails, these are the determining subjects of the painting of Heinke Böhnert. Born in Hamburg in 1961, the painter managed to point up completely new aspects from the genre of marine painting in the last years. Large-formatted impressions on the edge of abstract dissolution are created by reduced forming, determined by intense colour effects and thick application of colours. These reflect the clear and powerful temper of the artist. In her canvas works a fresh dynamic developes, reducing the view to the essential, definitely leading away from the common view of realistic sea, sailing and regatta painting determined by tradition. By the interplay of a pastose application of acrylic and concise mixed media, the poetry of the sea and also the natural power of water and wind is captured between surfacer, paper and canvas in a manifold and very vivid way. Heinke Böhnert has been sailing and painting since her early youth and has put this classic genre in a modern context by means of image conception and composition like no other painter. This makes her emerge from the genre and builds bridges to the abstraction in modern art.

Being influenced by the intense experiences on the water as a young sports participant in many international regattas, her interest in the French impressionism and the first generation of German expressionists was the trigger for her sustained interest in painting. Studies at art academies and painting trips since the 1990s made her by now inimitable style mature. It is being honoured by numerous exhibitions, especially in the USA, England, Denmark and Deutschland honoriert. After a widely noticed exhibition in the world-famous "Maritime Gallery" in Connecticut/USA, her single exhibition on the tall ship "Rickmer Rickmers" in Hamburg harbour in April 2005 was another important step in her vita. Heinke Böhnert feels connected to the sea and the North lives and works in Hamburg together with her family.

Hans Bohrdt

Born: 11th February 1857
Died: 19th December 1945 in Berlin

He was one of the favourite painters and also the painting teacher of the german emperor William II and was taken on sea journeys by him several times. His special subject was the depiction of water. For the townhall of Hamburg he created a large painting of a naval battle. Hans Bohrdt furthermore worked for Mühlmeister & Johler, an art printing shop in Hamburg and produced many samples for marine post cards

Roger Chapelet

Born: 25th September 1903 in Versailles
Died: 30th June 1995 in Montpon-Ménestérol

More information about him can be found at Wikipedia.

Michael Zeno Diemer

Born: 8th February 1867 in Muich
Died: 28th February 1939 in Oberammergau

Michael Zeno Diemer studied in Munich since 1884 under Gabriel Hackl and Alexander von Liezen-Mayer. He became famous for his impressive battle paintings. In 1894 he created a 1.000 m² large Riesenrundgemälde (giant circular painting) during six months of work. It depicts the Battle of Bergisel on 13th August 1809 when Andreas Hofer lead the Tyrolese to victory over the troops of Napoleon and Bavaria. The giant circular painting is one of 30 panorama paintings from the 19th and early 20th century still preserved worldwide.

A panorama created in 1896 portrayed the fight for Bazeilles during the Battle of Sedan in the Franco-Prussian War. It was shown in a building specifically built for it in Mannheim. He created several paintings for the Deutsches Museum (German Museum) in Munich, e.g. of a Roman aqueduct for the section "Wasserbau" (hydraulic engineering), an ideal of a medieval herb garden and of the landing of the Zeppelin in Munich in 1909. In Stuttgart he provided the tied house of Ketterer with a cycle of 14 large-sized paintings about the history of Swabian emigrants. His works also include numerous landscape and marine paintings, watercolours, poster designs and postcard motifs (amongst them also depictions of airships).

He also worked as a musician and a composer. His son was the pilot Franz Zeno.

This text is based on the German article Michael Zeno Diemer from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia. It is available under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported license. A list of the authors is available at Wikipedia.

Hanno Edelmann

Born: November 1923 in Hamburg
Died: 13th July 2013 in Hamburg

Economically difficult years and reprisals caused by the union engagement of his father characterised the first period. While the political situation got worse and war became more and more unavoidable, Hanno Edelmann discovered his musical and artistic talents in sort of a parallel world. Violin lessons and evening classes at the university of fine arts (HBK) opened a completely new world to the young man and intensified his wish to become a painter which he also did not abandon while working in some "ordinary jobs".

His preference for the human being as a central object showed up early. The war definitely terminated the innocence of childhood: the 17 year old was drafted and sent to France for a radio operator training. Even here he painted the people around him in various every day situations in every free minute he had.
In 1943 he was sent to the east front and captured by the red army. Four years full of privations followed for him being prisoner in a Siberian camp. But even there he found a way to aquire drawing equipment and to spend time creating portraits and studies about other prisoners and wardens.

Back in Hamburg the now 25 year old started studying the HBK. Here he met the art student Erika Estag who he married in 1953. The postwar period was also a time of privation for the family, even more, as professional concessions never came into question. The birth of his two sons, travelling abroad to Spain and Greece mark decisive steps in both of their lives. The fincancial backbone was formed by book illustrations and a series of orders to design church windows, e.g. the ones of the Martin Luther church in Hamburg.

Despite the material difficulties, the painter and his wife, as well as their son Michael lateron, never challanged the fact of being artits. Rather without painting, even one single day not at the easel, Hanno Edelmann could not exist. Passionate, almost manic, this man painted in watercolours, lithographed and sculpted regardless of being over 80 years old. Caused by the childhood or war experiences - his central motive was the human being, his technique the graphical-figurative painting, which he always stuck to from the beginning and also during the "abstraction delusion" of the 1950ies and 1960ies.

Hanno Edelmann - an uncompromising and passionate artist which can be found only seldomly today.

Additional information about him can be found at his website (only in German).

Viggo Fauerholt

Born: 1832 in Copenhagen
Died: 7th August 1883 in Dusseldorf

He completed his studies at the academy of arts in Copenhagen from 1846 bis 1852 and established himself as a marine painter in the tradition of C. W. Eckersberg. He oriented himself increasingly to non-scandinavian european painting.

From 1854 to 1867 he exhibited his sea paintings at castle Charlottenburg (Berlin, Germany). In 1857 he won the Neuhausen award. Prolongating one of his travel grants from 1865 until his death he stayed in Dusseldorf from where he took short trips to Denmark, Sweden and Holland.

Fauerholt is known for his style of romanticizing realism close to the on of Dusseldorf's marine Painting. Aside form sea paintings he also painted a series von landscapes in the Rhine area which he exhibited in Copenhagen. Most likely due to the Danish antipathy against German painting after the Prussian-Danish war of 1864 he exhibited his works in Stockhold from 1870 to 1875.

Wilhelm Frahm-Pauli

Born: 14th March 1879 in Hamburg
Died: 18th March 1960 in Hamburg

Wilhelm Frahm was born in the middle of Hamburg-St. Pauli. His parents were simple innkeepers. He decided to become a painter as a pupil already. With energy and assiduity he pursued his goal. At first he studied at the arts and crafts school in Hamburg and then continued his studies at the art academy in Kassel with the help of a commendatory letter of the director of the Hamburg Kunsthalle at that time. Afterwards he was a student in the master-class of prof. Knackfuß.

Soon his opinionated unique style found appreciation. His main work from the Kassel era was created in 1904: "the tailor's workshop". Exhibitions and awards followed. From now on he called himself Frahm-Pauli for a better distinction from other painters with the same name. He derived the name affix from his place of birth. In terms of his art as well as in his private life Frahm-Pauli remained a misfit throughout his whole life. He did not adapt to the common style and art conventions and only painted what he himself respected and honoured: the working people of his home in northern Germany.

His depictions strongly remind of the famous French realists of the 19th century. He stuck to his unmistakable, powerful but also sensitive way of painting throughout his whole life. Without any doubt, Frahm-Pauli's works belong to the most important testimonies to Hamburg painting of the early 20th century. His long considered lost estate was rediscovered by chance in 1988 and exhibited shortly afterwards.

Some of his children's paintings strongly remind of Paula Modersohn-Becker: verifiably Frahm-Pauli spent some time of his life in Worpswede.

Heinrich Gätke

Born: 19th May or 19th March 1814 in Pritzwalk
Died: 1st January 1897 in Heligoland

More information about him can be found at Wikipedia.

Gerhard Geidel

Born: 9th June 1925
Died: 24th January 2011

The autodidact Gerhard Geidel from Kleinmachnow was one of the most important German marine painters of the 20th century. He painted ships and boats of all types and from all times. Also popular are his paintings of Potsdam and Berlin which are often historical views.

Geidel's paintings can be found in many museums and private collections in Germany and abroad. He exhibited in the Potsdam town hall in 1982 and several times at the "art maritim" after 1990. In 1993 the Koehler Verlag published the illustrated book "Der Marinemaler Gerhard Geidel" ("The marine painter Gerhard Geidel"). In 2005/06 his works were exhibited at the museum ship Rickmer Rickmers.

This text is based on the German article Gerhard Geidel from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia. It is available under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported license. A list of the authors is available at Wikipedia.

Sylvia Goebel

Born: 1952 in Cologne

Sylvia Goebel lives as a freelance artist in Hamburg since 1986. Before that she completed study visits in Cambridge and Lausanne. From 1974 to 1977 she lived in a Kibbuz in Israel and studied at the academy of arts Bezaleel Jerusalem.

At first her paintings appear to be puristic, almost minimalistic, nevertheless they are impulsive and formally seem to jump towards the viewer and demand his complete attention. On the other hand her paintings radiate out a great calmness and balance - a sure sign for the artist's intuition for colours, shapes und picture rhythm.

The works of the internationally working and acknowledged artist can be seen in numerous national and international single exhibitions.

Erich Grandeit

Born: 5th January 1915 in Magdeburg
Died: 3rd February 2001 in Hamburg

Erich Grandeit was a German painter, illustrator, graphic artist and stage designer. He worked in Hamburg since 1933, especially at the Schiller Opera in Altona.

During the war he retreated in private life since his mother was Jewish, but was also drafted for war and flak service.
After the end of the Second World War he dedicated himself intensively to stage design and free arts until old age. From 1953 to 1962 he was a lecturer at the Academy of Music and Theatre in Hamburg.

Grandeit is considered a representative of realism and of the "new objectivity". He belongs to the generation of objectively working artists that received only very few reception for their works in the postwar period dominated by abstract painting für ihre Malerei fanden.

His estate is administered by the "Hamburg Theatre Collection".

Willem Grimm

Born: 2nd May 1904 in Eberstadt near Darmstadt
Died: 1986 in Hamburg

From 1919 to 1921 he attended the class of Rudolf Koch at the Applied Arts College in Offenbach and the Debschitz School of Carl Caspar in Munich in 1922.

Afterwards he created block prints for Walter Hollander in Worpswede. In 1924 he became a professional praline box designer for the Armbruster company in Bergedorf near Hamburg.

Lateron he studied at the State Art School under Willi Titze upon recommendation of Dr Rosa Schapires.

During 1926 he visited Karl Schmidt-Rottluff in Berlin. In 1926 and 1929 he stayed in Paris, started participating in the "Hamburg Secession" and in a studio in Hartwiccus Street. In 1929 he also founded the "Brothers Grimm Association", supported by the collector Emmi Ruben. In 1930 and 1931 he received a teaching assignment at the State Art School and travelled to Italy in 1931 with Ruwoldt and Kluth. In 1933 he had a studio at the Ohlendorff House and was on Sylt every year since 1934.

He took a study trip to Norway with Kluth as well as trips to Denmark and Basle, into the Alps and to Sweden.

In 1937 he married Käthe Franck and had two children with her (Michael and Kathrin). Five of his works were removed from the "Hamburg Art Hall" for being "degenerated art", another one in Husum. After that he completed an agricultural apprenticeship at the "Barkenhoff" in Worpswede.

In 1939 he returned to Hamburg with his family and was on duty during the Second World War as an ammunition guard in Hamburg-Rissen. From 1945 to 1969 he worked as a teacher (professor) for liberal painting at the Arts Academy in Hamburg. In 1959 he received the Edwin-Scharff-Award. In 1963 he married for the second time, the painter Margret Thiemann. In 1967 he worked at the "Villa Massimo" in Rome.

Rudolf Grothkop

Born: 4th February 1908 in Pinneberg

Died: 27th April 2002

Rudolf Grothkop worked as a dentist in Pinneberg from 1932 to 1982.

As a painter and drawer he was an autodidact.

He had several single exhibitions in the area of northern Germany, e.g. in Kiel, Lübeck, Itzehoe, Pinneberg and Glückstadt. He was also involved in several group exhibitions of the "Artists Guild of Pinneberg" and of the "Artists Federation of Steinburg County".

Herbert Grunwaldt

Born: 1928 in Bunzlau

Died: 1st July 2014

From 1952 to 1957 he studied at the university of fine arts in Hamburg under Willy Titze, Willem Grimm and Alfred Mahlau
Since the 1950s, the works of Herbert Grunwaldt were presented in several exhibitions.

He became famous especially for his etchings. His preferred topic is nature, especially in the Baltic Sea area. His formulated artistic effort is the the "surreal romanticism" and the "dream in clear drawing".

Elke Hecht

Born: 1930

Being a skilled goldsmith, I completed my artistic education with studies at the university of applied sciences für design. Since I repetitively took study trips to the Mediterranean area the influence of light and colours was inevidable. The southern impressions are again and again reflected in my watercolours and tempera works.

Being asked for the concept in my oil paintings I have to say: "at the beginning I barely have one". I am being drawn into the painting by the first strokes of the brush on the canvas. I let it grow and myself discover how a metamorphosis into what I want to express slowly takes place.

To an increasing degree I am fascinated by the decomposition of solid forms into the abstract. Since 1976 I have been a member of the professional organisation of visual artists in Hamburg. Works in private ownership in: USA, Chile, Australia, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Libanon and Germany.

Christian Ludwig Wilhelm Heuer

Born: 6th November 1813 in Hamburg

Died: 15th April 1890 

Heuer was born when at Görttwiete near the Hopfenmarkt (hops market) when Hamburg was occupied by the French revolutionary army. He was the son of the tailor Johann Friedrich Heuer and Christina Magdalena, born Lehmann, from Uelzen. His birth was registered in the French "Zivilstands-Geburten-Register von Hambourg" (marital status birth register of Hamburg) under number 2738. When he was one year old his parents moved to a house at Stavenpforte and later to Altenwallstraße. The house there was destroyed by the Great Fire of Hamburg in 1842.

Heuer started his apprenticeship as a lithographer in 1828 or 1829 in the printers' shop of the Suhr brothers. After completing his apprenticeship he initially continued to work there and moved to Vienna in the second half of the 1830ies to further improve his skills. Here he also met his future wife Maria Grisenberger (*1816) whom he married on 11th April 1837 at the Pfarre (parish) St. Leopold. She was a daughter of the smallholder Leopold Grisenberger.

With his wife he returned to his hometown right after the Great Fire of 1842. In the same year he started a long-lasting collaboration with the company of Charles Fuchs, one of the most famous lithographic establishments of Hamburg. His first bigger work of art was published there, a panorama of the burnt down Hanseatic city of Hamburg, that was sold for 12 Marks in coloured form.

Afterwards he worked for the Berendsohn'sche Kunst- und Buchhandlung (Berendsohn's art and bookshop). He created a series of "historical situation and topography pictures of the […] history of Hamburg" for them. They were made for Hamburgs Gedenkbuch (the memorial book of Hamburg) - a chronical of its fate and events - that was completed in 1844. In the years until 1847 the pictorial views of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg were published on 56 sheets.

A lesser-known fact is that Wilhelm Heuer created numerous lithographs for the company J.C. Godeffroy & Sohn. He lithographed drawings and photographs that explorers had brought to Hamburg from the South Seas for the Museum Godeffroy. The lithographs were published within the journals of the Museum Godeffroy between 1873 and 1881.

Heuer's main work, Hamburg and its surroundings, was published by the company of Carl Gassmann. Heuer started it in 1853 with the first 12 lithographs. In the following years this work developed into a repeatedly updated complete view of Hamburg. By creating more large-sized lithographs of the Hanseatic city and its surroundings Heuer became one of the most respected lithographers of Northern Germany. In his last years of life he also created 84 autographs.

This text is based on the German article Wilhelm Heuer from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia. It is available under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported license. A list of the authors is available at Wikipedia.

Johannes Holst

Born: 22nd October 1880 in Hamburg-Altenwerder
Died: 5th July 1965 in Hamburg

Being influenced by the profession of his father - he was a skipper - and by the closeness to Elbe and sea, he became interested in shipping at an early age already.

He completed an apprenticeship as an ornamental painter at the studio of Julius and Hinrich Lüdders who were respected ship portraits' painters already at that time. Being his masters, they had great influence on his later producing.

At first he painted fishing boats, his later works depict sailing ships and steamers on the high seas. Stormy atmospheres at sea are characteristical for his paintings. Holst created works of very high quality and a realistic manner of painting. The ships painted by him show every detail. The water is also depicted very realistically by him.

Holst was a very active artist and was tasked by many shipowners to paint portraits of their ships because of his high quality works. Portraits of sailing ships, for the shipping company F. Laeisz in Hamburg et al., form the main part of his complete works that consists of about 1000 paintings. The paintings of Holst are especially valued and traded a lot in northern Germany.

Tom Hops

Born: 6th May 1906 in Hamburg
Died: 23rd January 1976 in Hamburg

Tom Hops was a German painter and graphic artist of the "lost generation". During his childhood he was influenced by his artistic mother who took him to the Hamburger Kunsthalle (the art museum of the city of Hamburg) at an early age and introduced him to drawing. After his schooldays he completed an apprenticeship in import and export. Afterwards he went to sea as a purser for the Woermann-Linie in 1926 and 1927 and painted additionally. In 1928 he moved to Berlin and decided on painting which he taught himself autodidactically since he was rejected by the Preußische Akademie der Künste (Prussian Academy of Arts). In the same year he went on a trip to Italy. Around 1930 he was supported by gallery owners from Berlin, e.g. Alfred Flechtheim, whom he visited very frequently.

Since 1933 he lived in Hamburg again. Since at least 1935 he lived at Schlankreye 59 in Hamburg-Harvestehude an from 1936 or 1937 on at Fuhlsbüttler Straße 288 in Hamburg-Barmbek-Nord. In 1936 and 1938 he received two scholarships from the Erdwin-Amsinck-Stiftung (Erdwin Amsinck foundation). During the Second World War he served as a lieutenant in the German Navy, e.g. in the Bay of Biscay. In 1943 he was awarded the Albrecht-Dürer-Preis of the city of Nuremberg. After the war he was a member of the artistic community "Hamburger Gruppe 1945" founded by Martin Irwahn and Richard Steffen. Ernst Flege, Peter Luksch (son of Richard Luksch and Elena Luksch-Makowsky), Max Hermann Mahlmann, Hans Müller-Dünwald, Franz Nespethal, Kurt Priegnitz, Ernst Witt, Fritz Husmann and lateron Willi Breest, Hilde Stromberger, Johannes Ufer, K. R. H. Sonderborg, Walter Siebelist and Hermann Schütte were also members of the community. He also became a very committed member of the Rotary Club Hamburg.

Since 1945 Tom Hops had a student, the painter and graphic artist Diether Kressel learned to paint in watercolours from him. Aside from painting Tom Hops was also politically active and was appointed a member of the Kulturdeputation (a citizen culture commitee) by the FDP (Free Democratic Party, the German liberal party). Around 1951 he went on a cruise for two months, invited by Consul Thomas Entz-von Zerssen, the owner of the North Frisian shipping company. This and other travels took him to places like France, England, Spain, Italy, Marocco, Istanbul as well as Switzerland and the USA. But he also went on many trips inside Germany. He frequently visited the island Sylt. In Niebüll he once restored the wall painting Bierkönig (beer king) of the painter Carl Ludwig Jessen. It found a new home in the Andersen-Hüs (Andersen house) in Klockries, in the commune Risum-Lindholm in 2014. In 1955 he moved to Hallerstraße 1, on of the Grindelhochhäuser (an ensemble of 12 highrise buildings) in Hamburg-Harvestehude. Tom Hops lived next door to the composer and director Rolf Liebermann. He was friends with the sculptor Fritz Fleer who lived at Hallerstraße 5a, also one of the Grindelhochhäuser. The painter Arnold Fiedler was a resident in one of those buildings, at Grindelberg 60 on the 9th floor, too.

In the 1950ies and 1960ies Tom Hops was regarded as kind of an "ambassador of Hamburg" since many of his colourful views of Hamburg were given to numerous international major cities like Rio de Janeiro, Helsinki, Warschau and Paris by the Hamburg Senate and as commission paintings by banks, shipping companies and industrial concerns like Shell. In 1960 he was awarded the Edwin-Scharff-Preis of the city of Hamburg. He was appointed professor in 1974. Aside from oil paintings, watercolours, gouaches and felt-tip pen drawings Tom Hops also created art in public rooms like stained glass windows, wall paintings, a glazed tile stele and a ceramic mosaic.

Tom Hops was buried on the Ohlsdorf Cemetery in Hamburg, grid square AA 5, in 1976.

Tom Hops, who also has descendants, is represented with his works in the collections of the Hamburger Kunsthalle, the the Altonaer Museum in Hamburg, the Kunsthalle Bremen (the art museum of the city of Bremen), the Stadtmuseum (city museum) Warleberger Hof in Kiel, the Pinneberg Museum, the Museumsberge (museum hills) Flensburg, the Museum Rade am Schloss (at the castle) Reinbek and the Osten World Gallery of Drawings in Skopje as well as in the collections of Gerhard Schneider, Hermann-Josef Bunte, the Deutsche Bank, the Deutsche Bundesbank (the German central bank) in Hamburg, the Hamburger Sparkasse, the Behörde für Kultur und Medien (government agency for culture and media), the NDR (Northern German Broadcasting), the BBC and the SAGA Unternehmensgruppe with at least 15 works.

This text is based on the German article Tom Hops from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia. It is available under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported license. A list of the authors is available at Wikipedia.

Jan Horstmann

Born: 12th September 1894 in Finkenwärder
Died: 3rd November 1982 in Hamburg

Jan Horstmann was born as the oldest of three brothers. His father, the fish smoker Paul Horstmann, was originally from Hamburg-St. Pauli. Jan grew up in Finkenwärder near the berth of the Finkenwerder fishing fleet. He started drawing at an early age. After his schooldays he completed an apprenticeship as a painter in Blankenese. His journeyman's years of service that he spent partially in southern Germany were interrupted by the outbreak of the First World War. Only a few works from this time are still preserved.

Later he further educated himself at the Kunstgewerbeschule (school of arts and crafts) in Hamburg and became a master of painting. At the beginning of the 1920ies he opened his own painting business in Finkenwerder. In the garden of his business he established his studio. Horstmann depicted the "old Hamburg" in his paintings and drawings; many of the motives do not exist any more in the form he painted them. His hometown Finkenwerder with its "Malerwinkeln" (painters' corners) was one of his favourite motives. Sail fishing vessels and portraits of early fishing trawlers from Hamburg as well as square riggers and the HADAG-ferries were his preferred models. Paintings by Horstmann are privately owned but the Deutsche Schifffahrtsmuseum (German shipping museum) in Bremerhaven also exhibits paintings by him.

This text is based on the German article Jan Horstmann from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia. It is available under the terms of the
Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported license. A list of the authors is available at Wikipedia.

Franz Hünten

Born: 2nd May 1822 in Hamburg
Died: 2nd March 1887 in Hamburg

The well-known and valued British marine painter was a sailor at the East India Company before he started painting in 1815.

His paintings mainly show ship portraits but also war ships, sea battles, coast lines and harbour scenes. He was also inspired by his travels to China and India during his time as a sailor. Thus his works also contain magnificent portraits of sailing ships of the East India Company and other bigger merchant ships.

His paintings are well-balanced compositions with numerous other ships and distant coast lines in the background. As a former sailor he was able to depict the ships and exotisc coast lines very realistically due to his own experiences. Huggins preferred big oil paintings on canvas but also created less big oil paintings and a few water colours.

Huggins was a court painter at the British royal court and his works were exhibited at the "London Royal Academy" since 1817 and at the "Britisch Institute" since 1825.

Today his works are rarely sold and are sought-after by art collectors around the world.

William John Huggins

Born: 1781
Died: 1845

The well-known and valued British marine painter was a sailor at the East India Company before he started painting in 1815.

His paintings mainly show ship portraits but also war ships, sea battles, coast lines and harbour scenes. He was also inspired by his travels to China and India during his time as a sailor. Thus his works also contain magnificent portraits of sailing ships of the East India Company and other bigger merchant ships.

His paintings are well-balanced compositions with numerous other ships and distant coast lines in the background. As a former sailor he was able to depict the ships and exotisc coast lines very realistically due to his own experiences. Huggins preferred big oil paintings on canvas but also created less big oil paintings and a few water colours.

Huggins was a court painter at the British royal court and his works were exhibited at the "London Royal Academy" since 1817 and at the "Britisch Institute" since 1825.

Today his works are rarely sold and are sought-after by art collectors around the world.

Antonio Jacobsen

Born: 1850 in Copenhagen
Died: 1921 in Hoboken (New Jersey / USA)

He was born in Copenhagen an studied there at the Royal Academy in 1871. In the same year he fled the Franco-Prussian war to New York. There he was commissioned by Old Dominion Line Vessels in 1876 and Morgan Line Steamers in 1877.

Horst Janssen

Born: 14th November 1929 in Hamburg
Died: 31st August 1995

Everything about him can be found on the website of the Horst Janssen museum:

Prof. Alfred Jensen

Born: 16th November 1859 in Randers / Denmark
Died: 29th June 1935 in Hamburg

Alfred Jensen went to sea at age 14 already and went on study trips to Africa, Australia and China amongst others. From 1884 to 1885 he studied under Heinrich Leitner in Hamburg. Afterwards he went to sea again. In 1897 he continued his studies, this time at the Academy in Kassel under Emil Neumann. Afterwards he lived in Hamburg and worked as a professor at the local school of arts and crafts.

Jensen is regarded as a so-called marine painter whose works - including ship portraits - can be found in museums in Hamburg (Museum für Hamburgische Geschichte, Altonaer Museum), Bremen, Kiel, Tronse and in private collections.

In 1896 he was awarded the Ehrendiplom (certifcate of honour) Kiel, in 1901 he received the gold medal in Lyon.

This text is based on the German article Alfred Jensen (Maler, 1859) from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia. It is available under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported license. A list of the authors is available at Wikipedia.

Patrick von Kalckreuth

Born: 7th August 1898 in Kiel
Died: 1970 in Starnberg

He mostly lived and painted in Dusseldorf and Berlin. But his motives were also inspired by the North Sea.

Kalckreuth was a landscape and marine painter and became famous for his oil paintings dealing with breakers and the sea. He is considered a master of seascapes and wanted to depict the waves and the sky in a special light.

Luigi Kasimir

Born: April 18, 1881 in Pettau (today: Ptuj, Slovenia)
Died: 1962

The graphic artist studied at the general painting school of the Vienna academy under Siegmund L'Allemand from 1900 to 1905 and was an extraordinary student at the graphical education and research centre in Vienna.

In 1905 he debuted at the Vienna house of artists with small water colour vedutas before he started his first attempts as a graphic artist in 1908 under under guidance of Leo Diets at the school of applied arts in Graz. At first he stopped doing graphics again since there was no copper printer in Graz at that time. In 1902 and 1903 he attempted to etch some plates with friends but only the experiments at the graphical education and research centre together with Emil Singer lead to success.

Before he was influenced by nordic artists like Zorn or von Kalckreuth, his style consisted of transforming the art of Rudolph von Alts art into graphics.

On 31st August 1911, he married the etcher Tanna Hoernes who also influenced his style.

Kasimir belonged to the most active and well-known graphic artists of Austria and is especially known for his city vedutas. In his works he mostly depicted Vienna during the monarchy era and the interwar period in a turn-of-the-century style. A. F. Seligmann described his style as follows: "A special characteristic of his vedutas is the extremely discrete use of colours. For the most part there are only slight nuances, a weak green, blue, brown forming the basic tint, variegated by some more powerful but very economically used yellow or red inks, still striking a full chord, almost creating the impression of a painting."

Alfred Klosowski

Born: 1927 in Hamburg

Unfortunately no detailed information is available.

Fritz Kronenberg

Born: 13th Dezember 1901 in Cologne
Died: 4th April 1960 in Hamburg

Kronenberg attended the wood carving class at the Cologne school of arts and studied drawing from 1920 to 1923 at the Karlsruhe academy with Karl Kluth.

Working as a butler, a ship's boy, etc., in 1923 he travelled to the USA, to Spain and to North Africa, in 1924 to Norway. In 1925 he made the acquaintance of Georges Braque Paris, Helmuth Kolle and Wilhelm Uhde in Paris.

He settled down as a freelance artist in Hamburg in 1927, got married to the daughter of the Rhenish industrialist Otmar Strauß and became friends with Emil Maetzel and Ivo Hauptmann. In 1932 he joined the Hamburg Secession und took part in the "Zinnober" celebrations.

He retreated from the art business in 1933 and was an intermittent lecturer at the Koppel school of arts during the NS era. In 1937 six of his works were confiscated at the "Hamburg Kunsthalle" and at the "Hamburg museum for decorative arts and crafts" for being "degenerated".

In he 1940 got married for a second time, this time to the teacher Sigrid Vogler. In 1941 they became parents of a son.

In 1943 his flat and his studio were bombed out and his works were destroyed. Only in 1949 he returned to Hamburg and joined the "Deutscher Künstlerbund" (german artists association) in 1950. He became a member of the "Freie Akademie der Künste" (free academy of arts) in Hamburg in 1953.

Study trips took him to the Caribbean in 1954, to Skagen in 1957, around South America by ship in 1958 and to Brittany in 1959. During that time he received the Edwin Scharff award in 1958.

Heinrich Leitner

Born: 7th October 1842 in Vienna
Died: 18th December 1913 in Hamburg

He worked as a merchant seaman for 8 years before he was a student in the master class of A. Melbye in Hamburg from 1864 to 1869. He repeatedly took study trips to Italy, Greece, Turkey, South America and Scandinavia.

The "Hamburger Kunsthalle" exhibits 9 charcoal drawings of Leitner.

Henri Lepetit

Born: 1956 in Westport / USA

Information about him can be found at his website:

Uwe Lütgen

Born: 1944 in Hamburg

Uwe Lütgen has been working as a freelance marine painter in Hamburg for 30 years. Aside from oil painting he is also interested in other artistically challanging techniques like reverse glass painting and china painting. Though the main focus of his works is on sometimes large-sized oil paintings of yachts and regatta scenes in the tradition of historical marine painting. His paintings are appreciated and have found friends worldwide.

Born in 1944 he developed a "disposition towards the sea" already in his youner years. At age 15 he went to sea on a Finkenwerder fishing boat. Fishing trips in the North Sea. His parents wanted to sponsor his talents and sent him to an apprenticeship for scene and theatre painting to the only studio for film, stage and exhibition stand construction in town. After three and a half year Uwe Lütgen completed the apprenticeship as valedictorian and was immediately hired by the "Deutsches Schauspielhaus" as a scene painter.

After eight years of scene painting he became a freelance artist. Doing restoration work, Uwe Lütgen discovered his passion for antiques. Since he does everything he does with consistency he completed a two year volontary apprenticeship as a restorer at the Museum of Hamburg History. Completing the order of the "Norddeutscher Regatta Verein" restoring and copying the famous painting of the schooner "Hamburg" crossing the Atlantic, painted in 1908 by Schnars-Alquist he found his way to marine painting. Doing more restorations of works of old masters Uwe Lütgen also learned about their painting techniques.

Although Uwe Lütgen did not dare to introduce changes in style in his painting he still brought a breath of fresh air to the profoundly standardized world of marine paintings by stylistic means. He does not lock the yachts into position completely with topmast and tackle, from stem to stern, painted in oil. He e.g. rather chooses the perspecive from the forecastle of the "Meteor IV" in view of the crew sitting on deck with other yachts in the background: "The lines quasi leaving the frame and the people simply bring action into the paintings."

Uwe Lütgen has customers all around the world: contractors from Holland, Scandinavia and the USA, shipping and insurance companies, the "Deutsches Museum" ("German Museum of Masterpieces of Science and Technology") in Munich, collectors and orderers of portraits. He also created captains' cups that were presented as gifts to the German presidents Richard von Weizsäcker at the "Sail '86" and Roman Herzog at the "Sail '95". In 1992 Uwe Lütgen was awarded the first prize of the marine painters at the glamourous bathing resort Mystic Seaport, Connecticut.

John Henry Mohrmann

Born: 16th December 1857 in Estebrügge
Died: 22nd February 1916 in Bloomsbury (Canada)

John Henry Mohrmann was an American-Belgian-Canadian painter, specialized in ship portraits.

He was born as Johann Hinrich Mohrmann in Estebrügge near Hannover as the son of Henry Mohrmann and Anna Meyer. When he was two years old his family emigrated to San Francisco. His father was a magistrate in Oakland. His mother died when he was ten years old. On 7 May 1886 he married Juana Meyer from Fray Bentos in Uruguay. Between 1888 and 1908 they had seven children together.

Mohrmann was a vagrant sailor who knew how to successfully combine a maritime career with an artistic talent. The combination of his maritime and artistic knowledge made him a major ship portraitist, a painter commissioned by shipowners, captains, shipbuilders and maritime companies to paint portraits of real ships.

Mohrmann grew up in contact with the sea through the ships in the harbour of San Francisco. In 1870 he ran away from home and signed on as a cabin boy on a sailing ship. He was a sailor for 18 years and painted casually. He also was a zealous reader and finally spoke six languages.

Together with an italian friend he spent a year in Kassel. There they learned the profession of a set painter and created murals in a church. They also worked together as restaurators of paintings in Great Britain. When they ran out of money Mohrmann decided to become a sailor again.

In 1883 Mohrmann lived in Ekeren, afterwards in the centre of Antwerp, but he soon moved to a home close to the harbour. There he must have received further artistic education since he set up a studio and trained himself i.a. in portraiture, landscape painting, stage set painting and ship portraiture. In fact only one portrait by him is known, a self-portrait from 1885 he created for his parents-in-law in Uruguay to show them he could provide for his future wife with his art. He even returned to Antwerp again after his marriage in 1886. In 1901 he finally settled down in his "Villa Juana" in Hoboken.

Though he also painted numerous landscapes it is his ship portraits that are most loved by his audience. He himself attributed a not too high artistic value to these paintings but they guaranteed him a good income. The amount of detail in his paintings always depended on how much the buyer was willing to pay. The number of his works could be much higher but he only started a new painting when he felt like it or when he was short of money.

He was not shy about money and debts, frolic in dealing with potential customers, jovial and good family man. He spoke several languages and was an autodidact portraitist. Since 1888 he was a member of the Masonic Lodge "A.L. Elèves de Thémis".
In early 1913, shortly before the outbreak of World War I, Mohrmann moved to Barrhead, Alberta (Canada) with his family. His two eldest sons hed left a year early already to prepare the arrival of the family. But when he came there the house had not been built. Life was hard and the family suffered from the permanent shortage of money. Soon he regretted his move and seeked for work, also in Minnesota in the USA. The hard work and the harsh climate had an adverse effect on his health. He created a few paintings but could not find an audience for them. He died in his house in Bloomsbury on 22 February 1916 of pneumonia and a weakened heart, full of nostalgia for his former life in Antwerp.

Mohrmann earned his greatest merits as a ship portraitist. The majority of his most productive works is from the time after 1890, though his first work dates from the year 1885: the self-portrait. By the end of 2013 more than 470 works of him were known. About 32 of them are family owned, more than 120 can be found in different (maritime) museums, some are owned by merchants and the rest is in private ownership. In Germany some of his paintings are found in the Werder Collection, in the collection of Prof. T. Siersdorfer in Essen (8 pieces) and in (former) shipping companies, i.a. in the Sloman Neptun-Schiffahrts AG in Bremen (5 pieces) and in the former A. Kirsten-Reederei in Hamburg. In Belgium 13 paintings are owned by the Compagnie Maritime Belge. His paintings are still frequently sold at auctions, mostly in Germany and Belgium.

In Antwerp Mohrmann received orders by captains and other people from the maritime environment of almost all seafaring nations that visited the city on the river Schelde. Mohrmann used photography as an aid in his work. Together with Jacobsen, Semple and many others, Mohrmann belongs to the best ship portraitists painting in oil technique. With him this seafaring tradition reached a last peak in Antwerp. Afterwards this task was taken over entirely by photography. Without any doubt his meticulous paintings have an invaluable maritime historical value. Most of his paintings have a size of 60 x 100 cm and achieve high prices at recent auctions.

This text is based on the Dutch article John Henry Mohrmann from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia. It is available under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported license. A list of the authors is available at Wikipedia.

Adolf Mühlhan

Born: 21st November 1886 in Hanover
Died: 16th April 1956 in Hamburg

Wilhelm Adolf Julius Mühlhan was a painter and graphic artist famous in Northern Germany. He was a student of Otto Hamel and lived in Hamburg. After the Second World War he lived in the country in Hamburg-Ochsenwerder with his wife Paula (born Pech) who he had married in 1911. Mühlhan mainly painted views of Hamburg and landscapes from the area of Northern Germany but also motives in France and portraits. In 1919 his works were exhibited in the Hamburger Kunsthalle (the art museum of the city of Hamburg).

This text is based on the German article Adolf Mühlhan from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia. It is available under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported license. A list of the authors is available at Wikipedia.

Fred Müller

Born: 1933 in Bad Dürrenberg
Died: 2013 in Hamburg

He was born into a family of painters. His father and his grandfather also were successful painters Großvater. One of the most famous marine painters in Germany.

He went to sea at the age of 14 already and worked in that profession for 20 years until he survived the foundering of a ship in the English Channel. In respect of his family he became a technical supervisor for the government safety organisation at Hamburg harbour where he supervised the loading and unloading of the ships. At that time he also started painting and became more and more successful. He completed contract works for customers from all around the world.

His harbour views and ship paintings in naturalistic tradition are very popular. His paintings are characterised by their special luminance and technically perfect motifs. He himself called Claus Bergen, Hans Bohrdt and Johannes Holst amongst others to be his role models.

Hans Porwoll

Born: 28th September 1898 in Hamburg

Died: 13th April 1984 in Hamburg

Hans Porwoll was a German landscape and marine painter. He studied at the Staatliche Kunstgewerbeschule in Hamburg (University of Fine Arts of Hamburg) under Julius Wohlers and Arthur Illies. Amongst others he painted landscape motives of Hamburg harbour and the river Elbe, preferably in Hamburg-Rissen and on the German island Rügen in the Baltic Sea, where he stayed from 1933 to 1942. Furthermore he painted portraits. According to "Der neue Rump" his style belongs to the late Impressionism.

His works were also exhibited during the time of National Socialism, e.g. by the Kunstverein (Art Association) in Hamburg. Some of them are in the holdings of the Mönchguter Museen (Mönchgut museums) in Göhren.

This text is based on the German article Hans Porwoll from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia. It is available under the terms of the
Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported license. A list of the authors is available at Wikipedia.

Hans Christian Ribbe

Born: 1963 in Berlin

Everything about him can be found on his website:

Amelie Ruths

Born: 1871 in Hamburg
Died: 1956 in Hamburg

Unfortunately no detailed information is available.

Prof. Armin Sandig

Born: 1929 in Hof/Saale

He is an autodidact painter and graphic artist. His works have been acknowledged with several prizes: e.g. he received the "Lichtwark scholarship" in 1960, the "Edwin Scharff prize" in 1972 and the "Friedrich-Baur-Preis für Bildende Kunst der Bayerischen Akademie der Schönen Künste, München" ("Friedrich Baur prize for fine arts of the Bavarian academy of fine arts") in 1992.

Armin Sandig's works can be found in public collections in the USA, the Netherlands and also in all famous museums of Germany like the "Städel'sche Kunstsammlung Frankfurt am Main" ("Städel's art collection Frankfurt on the Main") or the "Staatsgalerie Stuttgart" ("Stuttgat print collection"). Since 1972 he is a regular member of the "Freie Akademie der Künste in Hamburg" ("Free Academy of Arts Hamburg") and their president since 1980. He was awarded an honorary professorship by the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg in 1989. In recognition of his work Armin Sandig was awarded the "Bundesverdienstkreuz am Bande" ("German Merit Cross on Ribbon") in 2002.

Hans Sperschneider

Born: 1928
Died: 1995

The painter and graphic artist studied for some semesters under Erwin Hahs at the art school Burg Giebichenstein in Halle together with his wife. His inner connection to Halle and his friendship to it influenced his art style. Furthermore he was influenced by his Hahs, Walter Reise and Karl Kluth. Via Berlin he came to Hamburg and lived there since 1955 as a freelance artist.

In his early years he mostly painted figure paintings, cityscapes, portraits and still lifes. He became a marine artist at a later time and created watercolours, colour etchings, oil and tempera paintings. In contrast to his earlier works these are characterised by a minimum of colours and the motives being reduced to the essential. Furthermore people are not part of them any more. The paintings radiate calmness. This group of paintings mostly consists of marine landscapes of the German and Danish Baltic Sea islands and coasts.

Karl Heinz Schrader

Born: 29th May 1925 in Hamburg-Altona
Died: 2012

He had been interested in marine painting since his early youth. His special subject were atmospheres at the sea. His style was also influenced by his good relationships to prof. Battermann (Hamburg-Othmarschen), Helmuth Clausen (Timmendorfer Strand) and to the famous marine painter Johannes Holst.

Since 1987 he was present at the "hanseboot"-Ausstellung every year, since 1995 at the "Sylter Gemälde-Cabinett Paul Adelhoch" and the "Klostergalerie" in Fürstenfeldbruck.

Peter Suhr

Born: 17th June 1788 in Hamburg
Died: 20th September 1857 in Hamburg

Being a co-worker of his brothers Christoph(er) and Cornelius, the watercolourist, lithographer and etcher drew numerous views of old Hamburg between 1805 und 1857 that are considered interesting in terms of art history and topography. He published them in three parts in 1838 and 1850 titled "Hamburgs Vergangenheit in bildlichen Darstellungen" ("Hamburg's past in visual depiction"). One part of them deals with the time before 1800. Most of them show Hamburg in the first half of the 19th century and by that also report on two important events in the history of the city: the so-called "Franzosenzeit" ("French era") from 1806 to 1814 and the large fire of 1842.

Wolfgang Werkmeister

Born: 1941 in Berlin

Wolfgang Werkmeister studied in Stuttgart under prof. Gunter Böhmer from 1960 to 1964. In 1965 he attended the Hamburg academy of fine arts under prof. Wilhelm M. Busch and prof. Siegfried Oelke. From 1966 to 1968 he worked as a newspaper illustrator, from 1972 to 1973 he was a lecturer at the Hamburg academy of fine arts. Since then he lives as a freelance artist in Hamburg but he also travelled as far as Island and New Zealand.

The first big exhibition of etchings by Werkmeister took place at the "Lichtenberger Sommergalerie" (Fischbachtal/Odenwald) in 1979 under the direction ot the gallery Böhler. Since that time the gallery Böhler has been exhibiting his works several times in single exhibitions in the region and also in Bensheim and Seeheim-Jugenheim. In 1982 an extensive presentation took place at the "Haus am Tannenberg". In 1991 it was exceeded by an exhibition of 200 etchings at castle Lichtenberg and in 1996 by another extensive exhibition at the Lufthansa education centre in Seeheim.

H. P. Wirsing

Born: 1938 in Glückstadt

He has been drawing and sailing from an early age and studied at art schools in Hamburg, at first at Alsterdamm then at Lerchenfeld.

He works as a commercial artist and says about his profession: "Advertisement forces the graphic artist to put something in a nutshell." His motto as an artist "Wut tut gut" ("Anger does me good") is connected to the fact the he does not only feel connected to the sea and old beatiful ships but also to the environment. He critcises it's increasing destruction. That is why he got actively involved with the organisation "Greenpeace".

In 1980 he found his second home in Sintra/Portugal.

His style can be described as "like the old masters". He permanently trains himself by drawing and looks at the works of famous Dutch masters to improve his vision.

Louis Wöhner

Born: 13th February 1888 in Coburg

Died: 30th June 1958 in Munich

He received an education as a graphic artist and a lithographer at a print shop in Coburg. He visited applied arts schools in Stockholm, Brunswick, Cologne, Nuremberg und Düsseldorf. In 1913 he studied at the Kunstakademie in München (Academy of Fine Arts of Munich) with Peter Halm, Carl von Marr and Hugo von Habermann.

In 1918 he won a poster competition. Since 1920 his works were shown at the Glaspalast (Glass Palace) in Munich. The late impressionist was a member of the Münchner Künstlergenossenschaft (Munich Artists' Association) and also frequently exhibited there. He showed his works in special exhibitions in 1927 and 1956.

Louis Wöhner was a typical painter of his era. His motives met the prevailing taste and went from Northern Germany harbour views and Italian coastal landscapes to female nudes, from medieval town views to panoramas from Alpine countries and from genre paintings to interior painting and still lifes.

This text is based on the German article Louis Wöhner from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia. It is available under the terms of the
Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported license. A list of the authors is available at Wikipedia.